RS 17:81     

SUBPART B. POWERS AND DUTIES OF SCHOOL BOARDS

AND PARISH SUPERINTENDENTS

§81. General powers of local public school boards

            A.(1) Each local public school board shall serve in a policymaking capacity that is in the best interests of all students enrolled in schools under the board's jurisdiction. When establishing board policies, each board shall prioritize student achievement, financial efficiency, and workforce development on a local, regional, and statewide basis. When choosing a local superintendent of schools, each board shall select a leader who shall prioritize student achievement and act in the best interests of all students enrolled in schools under the board's jurisdiction.

            (2) Each local public school board shall determine the number of schools to be opened, the location of school houses, and the number of teachers and other school personnel to be employed. The local school superintendent shall have authority to employ teachers by the month or by the year, and to fix their salaries; provided that there shall be no discrimination as to sex in the fixing thereof and provided further, that it is not the purpose of this Section to require or direct the reduction of any salary, or salary schedule, presently in force. The local school superintendent shall see that the provisions of the state school law are complied with.

            (3) Each local public school board shall delegate authority for the hiring and placement of all school personnel, including those for which state certification is required to the local school superintendent. It shall be the responsibility of the superintendent to ensure that all persons have proper certification, as applicable, and are qualified for the position.

            (4) Each local public school board shall adopt policies for and establish procedures which require a local school superintendent to:

            (a) Delegate to the principal all decisions regarding the hiring or placement of any teacher or other personnel at the school in which the principal is employed, subject to the approval of the local school superintendent.

            (b) Consult with teachers prior to making any decisions regarding the hiring or placement of a principal at the school in which such teachers are employed. Any recommendations made by teachers shall not be binding upon the superintendent but shall be considered by the superintendent when making employment decisions.

            (5) Any policies and procedures adopted by a local public school board pursuant to the provisions of this Subsection shall be in accordance with all laws, all state rules, regulations, and policies relative to certification of teachers and other personnel, and any court order or restrictions relative to desegregation.

            (6) The superintendent and the school principal shall make all employment- related decisions based upon performance, effectiveness, and qualifications as applicable to each specific position. Effectiveness, as determined pursuant to R.S. 17:3881 through 3905, shall be used as the primary criterion for making personnel decisions; however, in no case shall seniority or tenure be used as the primary criterion when making decisions regarding the hiring, assignment, or dismissal of teachers and other school employees.

            (7)(a) Any person purporting to enter into any contract on behalf of the school district or schools under the board's jurisdiction, including but not limited to contracts with vendors or contracts of membership in any private or quasi-public entity, shall do so in compliance with policies and procedures adopted by the local public school board in effect at the time the contract is executed.

            (b) The provisions of this Paragraph shall not apply to any contract in effect on July 31, 2016, but shall apply to any new contract or renewal or extension of an existing contract executed on or after August 1, 2016.

            B. Each school board may permit school buildings to be used outside of regular school hours for academic purposes including but not limited to tutoring and study hall. The board shall adopt rules and regulations governing the terms and conditions, including fees if any, under which such buildings shall be used.

            C. Each city or parish school board is authorized to make such rules and regulations for its own government, not inconsistent with law or with the regulations of the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, as it may deem proper.

            D.(1) The regular meetings of each city and parish school board shall be held at least once each month on such day as each board shall select. Additional regular meetings may be held as each board designates. Special meetings may be held as boards determine or as occasion may require.

            (2) However, if a city or parish school board fails to hold a public meeting at least once during a calendar month, registered voters of the district may petition the board to hold a public meeting. Within five calendar days of receipt of such a petition by the president of the board or, if he is unavailable, by any other board member containing the names of at least one hundred registered voters of the district, the board shall hold a public meeting. The members of a city or parish school board that fails to meet as required by this Paragraph shall not be entitled to compensation or per diem for that month.

            E.(1) Each city or parish school board shall exercise proper vigilance in securing for the schools of the district all funds destined for the support of the schools, including the state funds apportioned thereto, and all other funds.

            (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule or regulation to the contrary, a city or parish school board shall have the authority, if otherwise applicable, to apply for, receive, and expend funds from public and private sources that are or may be made available to certain classes of child care providers and to administer in elementary schools under the board's jurisdiction, child care programs related to such funding. Additionally, any public college or university offering preschool educational programs shall have the authority, if otherwise applicable, to apply for, receive, and expend funds from public and private sources that are or may be made available to certain classes of child care providers and to administer, in facilities under its jurisdiction, child care programs related to such funding. Nothing in this Paragraph shall be construed to affect the authority of any approved nonpublic school to apply for and administer such funds.

            (3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule or regulation to the contrary, a city or parish school board shall have the authority, if otherwise applicable, to apply for, receive, and expend funds from public and private sources that are or may be made available for after-school child care programs and to provide for the administration in schools of programs related to such funding. Additionally, any public college or university offering preschool educational programs shall have the authority, if otherwise applicable, to apply for, receive, and expend funds from public and private sources that are or may be made available for after-school child care programs and to administer, in facilities under its jurisdiction, after-school child care programs related to such funding. Nothing in this Paragraph shall be construed to affect the authority of any approved nonpublic school to apply for and administer such funds.

            F. The secretary of each city and parish school board shall keep a record of all transactions and proceedings of the board.

            G. City and parish school boards may receive land by purchase or donation for the purpose of erecting school houses; provide for and secure the erection of same, construct such outbuildings and enclosures as shall be conducive to the protection of property, and make repairs and provide for the necessary furniture, equipment and apparatus.

            H. City and parish school boards have the power to recover for any damage that may be done to the property in their charge; they may change the location of a school house, sell or dispose of the old site, or of any site which for any reason can no longer be used or which is unused and unnecessary or unsuitable as such, and use the proceeds thereof for procuring a new one. Provided that the Orleans Parish School Board shall have authority to prescribe the rules and regulations to govern the building, equipping and repairing of school houses, and the dates of the meetings of that board.

            I. Repealed by Acts 2012, No. 1, §4, July 1, 2012.

            J.(1) Each city and parish school board may purchase appropriate metal detection devices and shall provide training to school administrators consistent with that provided as required in Paragraph (3) of this Subsection if metal detectors are going to be used in the system.

            (2) The State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education shall develop a plan for using metal detection devices for random weapon searches in elementary and secondary schools and shall submit it to the attorney general for approval. The attorney general shall periodically review the plan as changes in the law in relation to random searches occur.

            (3) The board shall provide the approved plan to each city and parish school board and shall provide training on the use of metal detectors and other techniques for weapon searches to system administrators that is consistent with the approved plan.

            K.(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule or regulation to the contrary, any city or parish school board member and any other person authorized pursuant to written policy of a city or parish school board shall have the right to examine any or all records of the school system except school employee records relative to evaluations, observations, formal complaints, and grievances.

            (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or rule or regulation to the contrary, any city or parish school board, upon a majority vote of the authorized board membership, shall have the right to examine any or all records of the school system.

            (3) Should an employee's personnel file be accessed by the city or parish school board, the employee whose file was so accessed shall receive written notice of such action, and the individual city or parish school board members shall maintain the confidentiality of any documents in the file so examined.

            L. Repealed by Acts 2011, 1st Ex. Sess., No. 41, §2.

            M.(1) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary and in addition to the authority provided by Chapter 2-A of Code Title II of Code Book III of Title 9 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950 relative to the creation of a public trust, a public trust having a city or parish school board as its beneficiary may be created to be funded by surplus revenues of the beneficiary school board and with the use of income produced by the trust restricted to meeting the capital outlay needs of the school system, including but not limited to the purchase of school buses, the construction or acquisition of school buildings and facilities, or both, and the funding of nonrecurring projects to improve instructional services to students in the classroom.

            (2) The provisions of Chapter 2-A of Code Title II of Code Book III of Title 9 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950 applicable to the creation of a public trust having a political subdivision of the state as the trust beneficiary also shall apply to a public trust created in accordance with the provisions of this Subsection except as follows:

            (a) Creation or amendment of the public trust shall not require the express approval of the State Bond Commission.

            (b) The public trust shall have no authority to incur debt or issue bonds or other financial obligations.

            N. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, each city, parish, or other local public school board shall adopt a policy under which the school board and school board employees may disclose education records or information from education records, without the consent of the parent or guardian of the student who is the subject of the records, to state and local law enforcement officials and other officials within the juvenile justice system. No school board or school board employee shall be liable for the disclosure of any information in accordance with a policy adopted pursuant to this Subsection. Each policy which is adopted pursuant to this Subsection shall contain or comply with each of the following provisions:

            (1) The disclosure of the education records or of the information from the education records must be to state or local law enforcement officials or to other officials within the juvenile justice system.

            (2) The disclosure must comply with the provisions of the policy which is adopted pursuant to this Subsection.

            (3) The disclosure must relate to the ability of the juvenile justice system to serve, prior to adjudication, the student whose records or whose information is to be disclosed.

            (4) The officials to whom the records or the information are disclosed shall certify in writing that that person, and any agency or organization with which that person is affiliated, will keep the personally identifiable portions of the records or the information confidential and will not disclose the personally identifiable portions of the records or the information to any person or agency or organization except a person or agency or organization within the juvenile justice system who or which has an independent right to that information.

            (5) Any other provisions which are necessary to comply with federal law or rules.

            O.(1) By not later than the beginning of the 2006-2007 school year, each city, parish, or other local public school board shall adopt policies and procedures providing leave with pay for any school system employee who is an elected member of the Board of Trustees of the Teachers' Retirement System of Louisiana or the Board of Trustees of the Louisiana School Employees Retirement System, an elected or appointed member of the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, or an appointed member of any task force, commission, or other advisory body established by the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education so that such employee may attend meetings of the entity and any committees thereof on which the employee serves.

            (2) The policies and procedures provided for by this Subsection may require that the employee provide notice to the school system of the dates and times of all meetings of the entity and any committees thereof on which the employee serves that are scheduled to occur on a regular basis and provide reasonable notice to the system of any special or otherwise unscheduled meeting. Such policies and procedures also may require that the employee apply for leave in a timely manner and provide documentation that the leave granted was used for the purposes for which requested.

            P.(1) No board member shall act in an individual capacity to use the authority of his office or position as a member of the school board in a manner intended to interfere with, compel, or coerce any personnel decision made by the superintendent or a school principal, including the hiring, promotion, discipline, demotion, transfer, discharge, or assignment of work to any school employee. The superintendent, as the instructional leader of the district and its chief executive officer, shall have primary responsibility for personnel actions in the district.

            (2) No board member shall use the authority of his office or position as a member of the school board in a manner intended to interfere with, compel, or coerce any school employee to make any decision concerning benefits, work assignment, or membership in any organization.

            (3) If a board member successfully defends himself against any allegation of a violation of this Subsection, the school board shall pay attorney fees and all other legal fees associated with his defense.

            Q.(1) Each city, parish, or other local public school board shall formulate, develop, adopt, and implement, by not later than November 15, 2009, policies, procedures, and practices applicable to school system employees relative to an electronic communication by an employee at a school to a student enrolled at that school.

            (2) The policies, procedures, and practices required by Paragraph (1) of this Subsection, at a minimum, shall:

            (a) Define electronic communication. The definition shall recognize the multiple means available for making such a communication, both those that facilitate direct communication, including but not limited to voice or text-based telecommunication devices, or both, and computers, and those that facilitate indirect communication using an intermediate method, including but not limited to Internet-based social networks.

            (b) Require that all electronic communication by an employee at a school to a student enrolled at that school relative to the educational services provided to the student shall use a means provided by or otherwise made available by the school system for this purpose and prohibit the use of all such system means to electronically communicate with a student for a purpose not related to such educational services except communication with an immediate family member if such communication is specifically authorized by school board policy.

            (c)(i) Specify that the occurrence of any electronic communication made by an employee at a school to a student enrolled at that school or that is received by an employee at a school from a student enrolled at that school using a means other than one provided by or made available by the school system shall be reported by the employee in a manner deemed appropriate by the school board. Records of any such reported communication shall be maintained by the school board for a period of at least one year.

            (ii) In providing for the manner and frequency of reporting required by this Subparagraph, the board may authorize a school principal, or his designee, to permit an employee at the school to contact one or more specifically identified students enrolled at the school and be contacted by such student or students using a means other than one provided by or made available by the school, provided the employee has requested and received permission from the principal, or his designee, to do so and has provided documentation in writing to the principal, or his designee, stating the purpose or purposes for such contact. Such purposes may include but need not be limited to necessary communications relative to extracurricular activities, student athletic activities, community-based youth activities such as scouting, and faith-based activities such as a youth group sponsored by a religious organization.

            (d) Specify that it is a duty of a school system employee to comply with the policies, procedures, and practices and provide that a failure to comply may result in disciplinary action, and in extreme circumstances may constitute willful neglect of duty.

            (e) Establish and provide for the imposition of consequences for a violation of the policies, procedures, and practices, including but not limited to termination of employment in accordance with applicable provisions of state law.

            (f) Provide a means for the timely reporting and investigation at the school system level of an alleged failure by a school employee to comply with the policies, procedures, or practices and for concluding such an investigation and resolving the allegation.

            (g) Provide a means whereby any alleged failure by a school employee to comply with the policies, procedures, or practices that also may be a violation of state or federal law is reported to the proper authorities.

            (h) Provide a means to assure that all school system employees are informed fully of the policies, procedures, and practices and the possible consequences at the school and school system level for a failure to comply.

            (i) Provide a means to assure that a parent or other person responsible for a child's school attendance is fully informed of the policies, procedures, and practices.

            (j) Provide a means for a parent or other person responsible for a child's school attendance to request that the child not be contacted through electronic communication by any school employee unless the purpose of such communication is directly related to the child's educational services and is sent to and received by more than one student at the school.

            (3) Any city, parish, or other local public school board having existing policies, procedures, and practices relative to electronic communication by an employee at a school to a student enrolled at that school shall conduct by not later than November 15, 2009, a formal evaluation of all such policies, procedures, and practices to determine their compliance with the provisions of Paragraph (2) of this Subsection and shall take all action necessary to conform the existing policies, procedures, and practices to such requirements.

            (4) No city, parish, or other local public school board or member of such a board shall be civilly liable for any electronic communication by an employee to a student that is prohibited as provided in this Subsection.

            (5) For the purposes of this Subsection, the term "city, parish, or other local public school board" shall mean the governing authority of any public elementary or secondary school.

            R.(1) Each city, parish, or other local public school board shall provide to high school students age and grade appropriate classroom instruction relative to the state's Safe Haven Law, Children's Code Article 1149 et seq., which provides a mechanism whereby any parent may relinquish the care of an infant who is not more than sixty days old to the state in safety and anonymity and without fear of prosecution.

            (2) Such instruction shall include but need not be limited to providing students with the following information:

            (a) An explanation that relinquishment of an infant means to give over possession or control of the infant to other specified persons as provided by law with the settled intent to forego all parental responsibilities.

            (b) The process to be followed by a parent in making a relinquishment.

            (c) The general locations where an infant may be left in the care of certain others.

            (d) The toll-free number established by the Department of Children and Family Services to direct individuals to designated emergency care facilities.

            (e) The available options if a parent is unable to travel to a designated emergency care facility.

            (f) The process by which a relinquishing parent may reclaim parental rights to the infant and the timelines established for taking this action.

            (3) For the purposes of this Subsection, the term city, parish, or other local public school board shall mean the governing authority of any public secondary school.

            S.(1) In addition to any other provision of applicable law, rule, regulation, or code, each city, parish, and other local public school board shall adopt and implement policies providing for inspections by qualified persons of all fire safety and prevention equipment, including but not limited to fire alarm and smoke detection devices at each school under its jurisdiction at least twice during each school year and to require that all necessary actions be taken by appropriate persons in a timely manner to assure that all such equipment is in good working order and meets the need for which intended. Such policies shall provide, at a minimum, that any employee of the board who performs an inspection pursuant to this Subsection shall have received the appropriate training necessary to perform such inspection, and documentation of such training shall be included in the employee's personnel file.

            (2) For the purposes of this Subsection, the term city, parish, and other local public school board shall mean the governing authority of any public elementary or secondary school.

            (3) The provisions of this Subsection shall not be construed to require any inspection by the office of the state fire marshal in addition to those otherwise required by law, rule, or regulation.

            T.(1) Each school year the governing authority of each public school shall provide to students in grades seven through twelve enrolled in Health Education age and grade appropriate classroom instruction relative to dating violence.

            (2) Such instruction shall include but need not be limited to providing students with the following information:

            (a) The definition of "dating violence", which is a pattern of behavior where one person threatens to use, or actually uses, physical, sexual, verbal, or emotional abuse to control his or her dating partner.

            (b) Dating violence warning signs.

            (c) Characteristics of healthy relationships.

            (3) The governing authority of each public school enrolling students in grades seven through twelve shall:

            (a) At the beginning of each school year, provide instruction to all school employees having contact with students in such grades relative to the definition of dating violence, dating violence warning signs, and how to properly address suspected or reported dating violence involving students, including but not limited to counseling and notification of law enforcement, and provide information relative to dating violence to the parents of students in such grades.

            (b) Include in student codes of conduct the definition of dating violence, dating violence warning signs, and instructions for reporting or seeking help relative to dating violence.

            (c) Collect data relative to the number of incidents of dating violence reported to school employees and the actions taken by school employees to assist victims of dating violence.

            (4)(a) In the spring of each school year, each local superintendent shall make an oral report at a meeting of the school governing authority that shall include but need not be limited to the compliance of each school with the requirements of this Section, aggregate data relative to dating violence, and any recommendations for reducing dating violence among students.

            (b) For the purposes of this Paragraph, for a charter school, the "local superintendent" shall mean the chief executive officer of the school or other employee holding an equivalent position.

            U. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section, a city, parish, and other local public school board shall retain all authority given by law to such boards to prescribe the duties and fix the salaries of and hold tenure hearings for all employees of such boards, as applicable.

            V.(1) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, no member of a city, parish, or other local public school board shall be prohibited from requesting, in writing or in open or executive session of the board, the status of any personnel matter. The requirement that any such request be in writing or made during an open or executive session of the board shall not apply when the board member has knowledge of the possible or alleged commission of a crime by a school board employee. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, no member of a city, parish, or other local public school board shall be prohibited from providing information on due process, grievance procedures, hearings, and tenure to any constituent of the member upon the constituent's request. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, no member of a city, parish, or other local public school board shall be prohibited from seeking or providing information on other issues regarding the operation of schools.

            (2) The provisions of this Subsection are subject to other requirements of law relative to the confidentiality of information contained in an employee's personnel files.

            W.(1) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, each city, parish, and other local public school board shall adopt a policy to require each school under its jurisdiction to provide the following:

            (a) An appropriate, private room, other than a restroom, that may be used by an employee to express breast milk.

            (b) A reasonable amount of break time to accommodate an employee needing to express breast milk that, to the extent possible, shall run concurrently with the break time already provided to the employee, and that shall be available to the employee for up to one year following the birth of her child.

            (c) Procedures for the employee to notify her supervisor or other appropriate personnel of her intent to make use of the accommodations offered pursuant to the policy and to schedule accordingly.

            (2) Any additional break time used by an employee to express breast milk as provided in this Subsection shall be considered unpaid leave time.

            (3) Nothing in this Subsection shall require any new construction by a city, parish, or other local public school board nor shall its provisions result in any additional cost to the school board.

            X.(1) The governing authority of each public school that enrolls students in grades nine through twelve shall provide instruction relative to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator. Such instruction shall be integrated into the curriculum of an existing course, such as health education, physical education, or another course that is required for graduation and deemed appropriate by the school governing authority, and shall include the following:

            (a) An instructional program developed by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross or an instructional program that is nationally recognized and based on the most current national evidence-based emergency cardiovascular care guidelines for the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of an automated external defibrillator.

            (b) Training for students relative to the psychomotor skills necessary to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. For the purposes of this Subparagraph, "psychomotor skills" means skills that students are required to perform as hands-on practice to support cognitive learning. Students receiving the instruction required by this Subsection in a virtual school shall not be required to perform hands-on practice.

            (2)(a) A classroom teacher shall not be required to be a certified trainer of cardiopulmonary resuscitation to facilitate, provide, or oversee the instruction.

            (b) The governing authority of each public school may consult and partner with the following individuals whom the governing authority may authorize to participate in providing the instruction:

            (i) Emergency medical technicians, paramedics, physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, police officers, deputy sheriffs, nurse practitioners, athletic trainers, firefighters, and any persons included in the definition of "health care provider" provided in R.S. 40:1299.41, each of whom shall be certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and must be currently licensed, certified, or commissioned according to his respective occupation in order to participate in providing such instruction. If it is in accordance with the laws, rules, or regulations governing his profession, if applicable, an instructor may apply the hours spent performing this instruction toward fulfilling professional requirements relative to performing community service.

            (ii) Representatives of the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross or other similarly qualified individuals.

            (c) Instruction required pursuant to this Subsection shall not result in the certification of students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the use of an automated external defibrillator. If, apart from the instruction required by this Subsection, a school governing authority provides a training program that is intended to result in such certification, the instructor shall be authorized to provide instruction for certification by the American Heart Association, the American Red Cross, or a similar nationally recognized association. Prior to the certification of any student under the age of eighteen through such a training program, a school governing authority shall obtain parental consent.

            (d) The physical presence of an automated external defibrillator in the classroom is not required. The instruction need only provide general information on the use and importance of automated external defibrillators.

            (3) The governing authority of each public school shall adopt rules and regulations necessary for the implementation of this Subsection.

            (4) The governing authority of each public school shall comply with any surveys or reporting that the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education or the state Department of Education requires in order to determine whether governing authorities are complying with the provisions of this Subsection.

            (5) This Subsection may be referred to as "The Burke Cobb Act."

            Y.(1) The governing authority of each public elementary and secondary school shall provide age- and grade-appropriate classroom instruction to all students relative to child assault awareness and prevention. Such instruction shall be limited to education on what constitutes abuse or an assault, and how students may safely and confidentially report to a school official the circumstances surrounding any such abuse or assaults.

            (2) Such instruction shall be integrated into the curriculum of an existing required course, such as health education, physical education, or another required course deemed appropriate by the school governing authority.

            (3) The governing authority of each public school shall adopt rules and regulations necessary for the implementation of this Subsection. Such rules and regulations shall include a requirement that each public school under its jurisdiction post on its website the number for the child protection toll-free hotline operated by the Department of Children and Family Services to receive reports of child abuse and neglect.

            Z. Each city, parish, or other local school board shall offer its employees the opportunity to participate in the Louisiana Public Employees Deferred Compensation Plan as established by R.S. 42:1301 et seq. The requirement of this Subsection does not prohibit a school board from offering its employees the opportunity to participate in other plans established pursuant to Section 457 of the Internal Revenue Code.

            (AA) The governing authority of each public school may require that at least one member of the coaching staff for each extracurricular sport offered by the school is certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid, and the use of an automated external defibrillator.

            Amended by Acts 1954, No. 452, §1; Acts 1976, No. 411, §1; Acts 1985, No. 603, §1, eff. July 13, 1985; Acts 1985, No. 565, §1; eff. July 12, 1985; Acts 1991, No. 521, §1, eff. July 15, 1991; Acts 1991, No. 881, §1, eff. July 23, 1991; Acts 1992, No. 425, §1; Acts 1993, No. 287, §1, eff. June 2, 1993; Acts 1993, No. 647, §1; Acts 1995, No. 261, §1, eff. June 14, 1995; Acts 1998, 1st Ex. Sess., No. 42, §1; Acts 2001, No. 134, §1; Acts 2003, No. 376, §1, eff. July 1, 2003; Acts 2003, No. 740, §1; Acts 2004, No. 748, §1; Acts 2006, No. 774, §1, eff. June 30, 2006; Acts 2009, No. 214, §1, eff. July 1, 2009; Acts 2009, No. 284, §2, eff. July 1, 2009; Acts 2009, No. 413, §1, eff. July 1, 2009; Acts 2010, No. 321, §1, eff. July 1, 2010; Acts 2010, No. 720, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 2011; Acts 2011, 1st Ex. Sess., No. 41, §2, eff. June 12, 2011; Acts 2012, No. 1, §§1, 4, eff. July 1, 2012; Acts 2012, No. 591, §1, eff. June 7, 2012; Acts 2013, No. 87, §1; Acts 2013, No. 329, §1; Acts 2014, No. 506, §1; Acts 2014, No. 517, §1; Acts 2014, No. 525, §1; Acts 2014, No. 547, §1, eff. June 9, 2014; Acts 2015, No. 297, §1; Acts 2016, No. 80, §2; Acts 2016, No. 149, §2; Acts 2016, No. 234, §1; Acts 2016, No. 347, §1.